A mediastinal mass is very serious and often due to a cancer. A mediastinal mass can be benign though. The common causes include lymphoma, metastatic cancer and sarcoidosis. Tuberculosis is another possibility. In this video, I demonstrate four cases and show the CT scan and correlate the pathology. The best way to biopsy a mediastinal mass in bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS).